Vascular malformations are deviations of the structure in blood and lymphatic vessels.
An artery might be too narrow – a stenosis, thus compromising the blood flow to the organ. A renal artery stenosis is an important cause of arterial hypertension. This can be treated by dilatation of the stenosis with a balloon or a stent. It is therefore important to detect such a stenosis in order to dampen the high pressure and to avoid hypertensive long-term sequelea.
Short-cuts between arteries and veins are called AV-malformations, causing either perfusion decline or hypertrophy of the organ. A closure (coiling) can prevent or stop these consequences.
In a renal artery stenosis the affected kidney receives less blood. The kidney then produces more renin, a hormone that increases the blood pressure. This mechanism is to deliver more blood to the handicapped kidney. But for all other organs this high blood pressure is dangerous. It may lead to atherosclerosis, heart muscle thickening and a high risk of stroke.
Different perfusion of arteries of the neck in a patient with tinnitus – a noise heard by the patient. In most cases no source can be found and treatment is often wait and see. But here color Doppler points to a treatable cause. Left 310 cm/s, right 48 cm/s (normal). The source of the tinnitus was an av-fistula of the vessels of the left side of the neck. Coiling of this malformation settled all symptoms immediately and the perfusion pattern normalized.